image reed copseyC Tech’s Earth science software has the power and functionality to address the most challenging tasks. The software is used by organizations worldwide to analyze all types of analyte and geophysical data in any environment (e.g. soil, groundwater, surface water and air). The company was founded on 3D modeling and visualization. 3D VIsualization World interviewed Reed D. Copsey Sr., President & Chief Executive Officer at C Tech Development Corporation to learn about the company, the technology in use and to gain a greater understanding of 'volumetric modeling'.

 





 

3DVW: Please tell us about how C Tech Development Corporation began – what need did you see? How did you become interested in this work?

CTECH: In 1989 I was running a division of a small aerospace and defense company and my group was focused on anti-tank and anti-helicopter warheads. My specialty was 3D modeling of explosive detonation and the interaction with the metal case and the warhead liner which becomes the projectile. I decided to start my own company to do both the design work and the precision fabrication, explosive loading and testing. This is C Tech’s origin story. I had made some money in real estate and stock options from the growth and success of my division. So, I sunk it all into my new business at what happened to be the wrong time. For those who remember their history, in 1990, the Berlin wall fell and Soviet Union collapsed. The U.S. Department of Defense lost most of their interest in defeating Soviet tanks and helicopters, and my new company with our supercomputer and explosive testing facilities was suddenly a cold-war dinosaur.

Of course, we scrambled to find new business areas for our core competency in solid mechanics modeling and explosives technology. Fortunately, before the company went bankrupt, we landed a subcontract with Hughes Aircraft and the Navy on the RAMICS program, which was a helicopter fired projectile to defeat underwater mines. C Tech’s original role on the RAMICS program was to design and test the projectile which must deliver all of its kinetic energy and a reactive payload to an anti-ship mine upon impact, rather than just penetrate the mine’s outer shell. We also built a special articulating tank, at our explosive testing facilities, to simulate the projectile entering the water over a wide range of angles. You see, the real challenge on RAMICS was making a projectile that could travel through the air, enter the water, and “fly” stably through the water with low drag in a regime called supercavitation. This had never been done before.

After testing dozens of failed iterations of bullet designs from Hughes’ and the Navy’s subcontractor, selected to design the bullet for supercavitating flight, I approached Hughes and asked if they would let C Tech try to do the supercavitation design. They turned us down. I decided to do the test on our own money, with a design which we developed using the same simulation software that we used for 3D modeling of explosive detonation and bullet impacts. We were successful on our first try. There is a reference to the RAMICS program with a picture of one of C Tech’s designs in a Scientific American article titled “Warp Speed Underwater”.

During this entire roller-coaster period with our defense business, I had been looking for other opportunities to employ our technology. One of my in-laws worked as a hydrogeologist in a small consulting company in Denver. It was the early 90’s and they were doing a lot of cutting-edge 3D groundwater modeling, but their graphics technology was far behind their modeling technology. During one family dinner, he was telling me about his finite element simulations which took over a month to run on a PC and how they were exporting 2D slices so they could view their results in AutoCAD. I laughed and asked him why he didn’t just do 3D animations of the time domain model? We did that sort of thing every day.

We started doing consulting work for his company. First doing graphics and animation of their simulation results, and quickly that migrated into rewriting their simulation software to run on our supercomputer, which reduced their run times from months to hours. However, during this exercise I starting looking at the Geology and Environmental industry and realized that this industry collected a lot of volumetric data, and that there wasn’t any software to make it accessible and understandable.

Please remember that this was over 25 years ago, and C Tech was doing most of our modeling and graphics on a smallish supercomputer that cost over $100,000. We had a couple other UNIX workstations, and PCs for word processing and the like. When I decided to take our software technology and repackage it for the Geology and Environmental organizations, the only logical option was UNIX. By 1993 we introduced our first commercial software which ran on PC hardware running a custom version of UNIX. We were disappointed with a rather cool reception.

We clearly didn’t do the best job of assessing the market, because we found very few companies in the Geology and Environmental industry willing to embrace any flavor of UNIX. They only wanted Microsoft Windows. Fortunately, C Tech had been very involved with SIGGRAPH and this gave us connections with graphics card manufacturers and some Microsoft personnel also. The countdown was on. We were waiting for the 1994 formal release of Windows NT. It would have the memory access, compilers and graphics hardware we needed in the Windows environment.

Once we had a Windows based product, our software sales ramped up quickly. Within 2 years I realized that I wanted to focus all my attention on our software technology. In 1997 I sold C Tech Defense Corp. and have been working exclusively on our Earth Science software and related technologies.

3DVW: Could you describe the core products that the company offers.

CTECH: C Tech has two product lines: Earth Volumetric Studio and EnterVol for ArcGIS. Earth Volumetric Studio (Studio) is the culmination of C Tech’s 28 years of 3D modeling development, building upon the developments of EVS-Pro, MVS and EnterVol. Studio’s customizable toolkit is targeted at geologists, environmental engineers, geochemists, geophysicists, mining engineers, civil engineers and oceanic scientists.

EnterVol for ArcGIS is a suite of extensions for ESRI’s ArcGIS which brings true 3D volumetric modeling to the ArcGIS Desktop environment. Though it is somewhat basic compared with Studio, it provides the ability to create true 3D volumetric models of geologic and analytical data which are not found in any other GIS software. Furthermore, C Tech has developed EnterVol and Studio to provide a high level of interoperability to allow larger organizations to leverage their GIS departments as adjuncts to their 3D modeling groups.

Whether your project is a corner gas station with leaking underground fuel tanks, a geophysics survey of a large earthen dam combining 3D resistivity and magnetics data, or modeling of salt domes and solution mined caverns for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserves, C Tech’s Earth science software has the power and functionality to address the most challenging tasks. Our software is used by organizations worldwide to analyze all types of analyte and geophysical data in any environment (e.g. soil, groundwater, surface water and air).

I take great pride in knowing that our biggest market segment is modeling of soil and groundwater contamination. Earth Volumetric Studio addresses every stage of the problems that face the environmental consulting industry. For example, for over 20 years, our DrillGuide© technology has directed analytically guided site assessment to allow for the lowest cost data collection and highest quality characterization of site contamination. There are literally thousands of contaminated sites worldwide where C Tech’s software has helped to understand the contamination and plan and execute the cleanup efforts.

Over the years, it has been our customers who have helped steer our product evolution the most. In the very beginning we selected a software architecture which is a toolkit. A library of modules which users can use to build applications to perform modeling, analysis and visualization functions. This paradigm is so powerful that customers continually surprise us with the unexpected industries and applications that they find for our software.

3DVW: Are there examples where these products are being used that you can share with us?

CTECH: Though we do get involved in consulting services, it is a relatively small part of our business as we are first and foremost a software developer. The few consulting projects we do each year tend to be large litigation cases with millions and even billions of dollars at stake. For that reason, it is extremely rare that we are able to share any results from our consulting services. Occasionally customers will allow us to use their data and share it with our customers as teaching examples, but generally only if we modify the coordinates and whitewash it to preserve their anonymity. However, there are some notable exceptions.

One of the most dangerous contaminated sites in the United States is the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site along the Columbia River in eastern Washington. C Tech has had commercial, government and non-profit organizations actively using our software to model contamination and monitor cleanup efforts at Hanford for over 20 years. However, all of these organizations except one were funded and controlled by the DOE. That one is the Nez Perce Tribe. Since the Hanford Site and the contamination it created affects the lands of the Nez Perce Tribe, they were provided funds to independently monitor the DOE’s activities. Over the years, their personnel have worked with us and shared the data they received, which has no legal restrictions. Unfortunately, it tells a sad story about the worst environmental disaster in the United States, and I welcome the opportunity to share a portion of that saga with your readers. This is certainly not the first time someone has spoken out about Hanford, but I believe that our interactive models and visualizations help to make the complex issues at Hanford more understandable to a wider audience.

As an introduction, Hanford played a crucial role in the Manhattan project during World War II and was the facility where most of the plutonium was produced for the 60,000 weapons in the U.S. nuclear arsenal. When it was decommissioned it left behind 53 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 tanks and 25 million cubic feet of solid radioactive waste. There have been numerous cleanup efforts, but none have resulted in safe radioactive contaminant levels where the waste was previously stored. No one expects that any part of Hanford will ever be habitable or returned to wilderness. However, we should be concerned about its proximity to the Columbia River and the major cities of Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington downriver.

Water, or to be more precise, moisture in the soil is the mechanism most responsible for the migration of these dangerous radioactive contaminants like Uranium-235, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, and Cobalt-60. The dryer the soil, the slower they will migrate from the tank farms to the nearby Columbia River. The Department of Energy’s published computer model results predict volumetric moisture levels within a narrow range of 4% to 7%. Presently, only Cyanide, Nitrate and Technetium-99 have contaminated groundwater at dangerous levels. However, the actual measured moisture data at Waste Management Area C tells a very different story.


There are large volumetric regions of the site where moisture levels exceed 7.5%, with peak values over 15%. Since this is in direct contradiction to the DOE’s modeling assumptions, we are skeptical about their predictions for when these contaminants will migrate to the Columbia River.

For the same site where the moisture levels have been misrepresented, we can see dangerous levels of Cesium-137.



Similarly, the Cobalt-60 levels also threaten the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River.


We hope that making these 3D models of this public data available to the public and explaining even a tiny fraction of the magnitude of the problems at Hanford will encourage the Department of Energy to be more open about their plans and cleanup strategies. Area C is just a small part of the Hanford Site, and the work shown here was done at our expense with data and guidance from the Nez Perce Tribe. We feel that there should be public access to visualizations such as these for every area, showing the current state of contamination, as well as historic data and predictive models used in the remediation planning efforts.

3DVW: How important is 3D and visualization to your work? Why?

CTECH: There are elements of our software that do perform 2D analysis and visualization, since there are occasions when this is more appropriate. However, as I have discussed above, our company was founded on 3D modeling and visualization. It was the core of our business when we were working in defense and it has always been the foundation of our Earth Science software.

3DVW: Why does C Tech put such an emphasis on volumetric modeling vs. 3D?

CTECH: I must admit that we at C Tech get rather frustrated trying to differentiate our company and products from the plethora of products that have jumped on the 3D bandwagon. From our perspective, the term “volumetric” is the simplest discriminator. However, to really understand why volumetric is important and different, you need to understand the difference between three-dimensional space and the dimensionality of objects.

All “real” objects in our world exist in three-dimensional space. Their location needs to be specified with X, Y, and Z coordinates. As we get more technical, if an object is rigid, we need three additional angles to describe its orientation just as we describe the yaw, pitch and roll of a plane. If the object is not rigid, things get far more complicated since we need to break it down into small “elements” and describe the locations of each of those elements and how they connect to their neighbors. To complicate matters further, time (the fourth dimension) becomes the driving impetus for how the object would change based on the forces and conditions that exist in the system we are describing.

Returning to the issue of the dimensionality of objects, most companies that consider their software 3D, deal only with points, lines and surfaces in three-dimensional space. A good example would be GIS software. This class of software creates 3D objects that might enclose volumes. However, even when this software can compute the volume of these enclosed regions, the models of these objects are merely surface skins, like balloons.

Object dimensionality refers to the space occupied by the elements used in the modeling process. There are 8 commonly used elements (cells) which are shown in the figure below.

Fig4 Object dimensionality refers to the space occupied by the elements used in the modeling process. Object dimensionality refers to the space occupied by the elements used in the modeling process.

Points do not have length, width, or height; therefore, their dimensionality is zero (0). Lines are dimensionality "1" because they have only length. Dimensionality 2 objects such as quadrilaterals and triangles have both length and width and are referred to as areal cells because they have area. Areal cells in three-dimensional space is the limitation for more than 95% of 3D software. In the graphics industry, we often refer to software that only displays points, lines and surfaces in 3D space as 2.5D. 

The remaining four cell types ranging from tetrahedrons (triangular based pyramid) to hexahedrons (boxes) are all truly volumetric. These are Dimensionality 3 objects with length, width and height. When creating surfaces, areal cells are used, but when creating truly volumetric models with three-dimensional grids, we use volumetric cells.

If you collect data within volumes, rather than on surfaces, you need volumetric modeling. If you punch (or drill) a hole in the ground and collect data as you go down, you’re collecting volumetric data. For many years, this data has been displayed as individual boring logs, each one separated from the others, disconnected from their 3D coordinates. But once you put everything into its true 3D space and treat it as volumetric, the true power of the data is revealed.

For those who are fans of the TV show the Big Bang Theory, you might recall the episode Let’s Go to Flatland that referenced Edwin Abbott’s novella Flatland published in 1884 that touches on this same subject from a different perspective. The common thread is that without the right “dimensionality” we lose the ability to truly understand an object.

3DVW: What advantages does volumetric modeling provide?

CTECH: When a volumetric model is created, we use geostatistics to estimate data into the volume based on sparse measurements. The algorithm used is called kriging, which is named after a South African statistician and mining engineer, Danie G. Krige who pioneered the field of geostatistics. Kriging is not only one of the best estimation methods, but it also is the only one that provides statistical measures of quality of the estimate.

The combination of kriging and volumetric modeling provides a much more feature rich model than is possible with any model that is limited to external surfaces and/or simpler estimation methods such as IDW or FastRBF. It allows us to perform volumetric subsetting operations and true volumetric analysis, and we can defend the quality of our models based on the limitations of our data.

In the coal mining industry, we can determine the quantity and quality of coal and its financial value. We can assess the amount and extraction cost of excavating overburden layers that must be removed or whether it is more cost effective to use tunneling to access the coal.

Fig. 5 - Stratigraphic model of Coal Mine and excavation pit in ColombiaStratigraphic model of Coal Mine and excavation pit in Colombia

In the field of environmental engineering, where our software was born, volumetric modeling allows us to determine the spatial extent of the contamination at various levels as well as compute the mass of contaminant that is present in the soil, groundwater, water or air. During remediation efforts, this is critical, since we must confirm that the mass of contaminant being removed matches the reduction seen in the site, otherwise it is a clue that during the site assessment we have not found all the sources of contamination. This can result in remediation efforts which create contamination in some otherwise clean portions of the site.

Fig.6 Site stratigraphic geology soil groundwater contamination at a government facilitySite stratigraphic geology soil groundwater contamination at a government facility  

An additional benefit of volumetric modeling for all industries is the ability to slice, cut or otherwise subset the model to reveal analytical results internal to the volume without needing to re-estimate data onto the newly revealed surfaces. This data can include multiple analytes, statistical measures of quality, geologic materials, geophysical data and more.

3DVW: Many of our readers are involved in geophysical related work. Others are interested in underground movement of water and so on. These readers often indicate that they have lots of data but have little knowledge about shifting into 3D / 4D. Can you offer a few ideas for them to begin visualizing their data more fully? What benefits might they see rather quickly?

CTECH: Geophysics is a field we take very seriously, since many of its instrumentation technologies can collect large quantities of volumetric data quickly and relatively inexpensively. Earth Volumetric Studio is a native 64-bit application, so it can handle huge datasets and multi-million node grids. The model below shows a coal mine in Africa where cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography was used to build a 3D volumetric model of resistivity and gamma-gamma logs were used to determine density. By performing an intersection of the volumetric regions where density is below 1.95 gm/cc and resistivity is high, we can clearly identify the coal seam. The diagonal break in the seam was caused by a fault which the client had already found in other borings and was surprised to see so clearly in the model. This data was provided courtesy of C Tech’s Italian distributor: Geostudi Astier.

Fig. 7 Coal seam and fault determined with gamma gamma logs and cross borehole resistivityCoal seam and fault determined with gamma gamma logs and cross borehole resistivity

Sandia National Laboratories has been using C Tech’s software for nearly 20 years on multiple projects ranging from modeling the solution mined caverns used for the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. In fact, it was Sandia that co-funded our adding the ability to export 3D models in a format for full color 3D printing 13 years ago. The picture below is an early 3D printed model produced by Sandia of the Bryan Mound SPR Cavern Field in Texas. The caverns are colored by radius and the grey “webbing” was added solely to keep the model strong enough to survive being handled. Each of the caverns would otherwise be supported by a small diameter base and would have easily been broken.

Fig. 8 - Full color 3D printed model of Bryan Mound SPR Cavern Field in TexasFull color 3D printed model of Bryan Mound SPR Cavern Field in Texas

For anyone ready to dive into true 3D volumetric modeling, the single most important requirement is that you have X, Y and Z coordinates for all your data. This is the cake and everything else is the icing and sprinkles. When a prospective consulting client comes to us, there are many additional questions we ask in order to understand their data and their needs.

• Do you have geologic information?
• What type of analytical data? (e.g. mining assay, environmental, geophysics, etc.)
• How much data (number of samples)?
• What additional data can you provide?
      o Aerial photos
      o CAD maps, roads, pipelines or buildings
      o GIS data
• What is the primary purpose of the model?
      o Communicate with your company team and/or management
      o Communicate to the public
      o Communicate with regulators
      o Litigation support
• What form(s) of output do you want
      o C Tech's 4D Interactive Models
      o Images
      o Bitmap Animations
      o 3D PDFs
      o Web published 3D models
      o 3D Printed models

Clearly some of the above list is focused on collecting and compiling the data, whereas some of the questions are to allow us to determine the scope of a modeling project. Often, we can take a quick look at someone’s data in a couple hours, whereas a comprehensive study for litigation support on a multi-million-dollar lawsuit requires that we try to address every possible challenge that the opposing side might put forward.

3DVW: Our readers involved in infrastructure design (i.e. architecture, plant design, highways, airports etc.) often have highly detailed 3D models they have created for construction purposes, but they also wish to present these projects within real-world context on the landscape. Do your products help in this way? Are there a few examples you could can describe that do this?

CTECH: The first point I want to make is that we are not CAD software nor is our software graphics software. In our early days, some of our customers mistakenly thought that the right personnel to assign to learn our software would be a graphics artist, and this was a bad decision. The models that we create are data driven. There is virtually no drawing involved in creating our 3D models, though you can draw the 2D & 3D paths along which you wish to cut, tunnel or otherwise subset models.

What we mean by “data driven” is that the data creates the model, and though the modeler makes many choices about the modeling process, those choices don’t require drawing. However, we make it easy to incorporate 3D CAD models, GIS data, aerial photos and/or photographic textures on materials.

 

Fig. 12 - Airport model of soil groundwater contamination with aerial photo CAD buildings and aircraftAirport model of soil groundwater contamination with aerial photo CAD buildings and aircraft

3DVW: What challenges do you see in 3D and visualization, particularly with respect to underground and offshore projects?

CTECH: Technical challenges are often like an onion. We must tackle them one layer at a time. The biggest challenge for new customers is usually related to collecting and formatting their data. This can seem like a daunting challenge the first time a new customer undertakes volumetric modeling. However, after a couple projects, the data compilation and formatting becomes second nature.

The next layer in the onion is often massive data. This is becoming increasingly common in our industry as many direct push technologies collect nearly continuous data as a probe is hydraulically inserted into the ground. Though it may seem that more is always better, in the case of data collected in borings, we find that data is often oversampled and thereby clustered.

Oversampled data is merely redundant data, and though it may not seem like a problem to have redundancy in your data, there are a lot of negative consequences associated with oversampling. The challenge is how to remove the redundancy in an intelligent manner to preserve the precision and required data density. The required data density depends completely on the project and its modeling goals. For example, a hydrogeologist might decide that alternating thin layers of sand and silty-sand could be adequately modeled as a single “sand” unit, where a paleontologist working the same site might need to represent each layer as unique strata representing a different prehistoric time period. One person’s redundant data may be critical information to another.

However, in general, we often want to depopulate oversampled data and C Tech provides tools to do this in an interactive manner where the user can make real-time choices and visualize the consequences of their decisions. Since the time to perform kriging can be proportional to the third power of the number of samples in the dataset, there are practical reasons to perform data reduction as well. Reducing the size of a large dataset by a factor of four can reduce computation times by as much as a factor of 64. It also improves the quality of the estimation since the kriging process performs best when the data is distributed as uniformly as possible. Reducing the data density down a limited number of lines improves the uniformity.

For C Tech, one of our challenges we take very seriously is providing support to customers all over the world. We do have employees spanning all U.S. time zones and in Germany and Brazil. However, because we have customers in so many countries, we must rely on well trained distributors to provide the first level technical support to their customers and act as translators and go-betweens as necessary when their customer’s English is lacking.

3DVW: I understand that your company is also involved in 4D related work such as animation and simulation. What is happening in those areas?

CTECH: We have provided high level animation support in our software for many years, and we now support four different types of animated output. Traditionally when we think of animation, it is bitmap animation, which is a sequence of images played as a movie. Common formats are MPEG, AVI or MOV. However, we also offer interactive animation formats where every frame of the animation are 3D models that you can interact with using your mouse to rotate, zoom and pan. The most feature rich of these is our own 4D Interactive Models (4DIMs). These models require our free proprietary player, but it is fast, smooth and feature rich. The other options we support are animations within 3D PDFs and web published 3D models using Sketchfab’s platform.

3D PDFs have the advantage that they can be included in standard PDF documents and only require Adobe Reader or Adobe Acrobat to be viewed. They can be integrated as a part of a standard PDF document, so our customers can incorporate 3D interactive models and animations into their reports and deliverables to their clients. One unfortunate limitation is that the PDF viewers that are incorporated into virtually all browsers do not support the 3D content. This means that you must download PDFs with 3D content and open them locally with Adobe Reader.

Web published 3D models can be viewed on virtually any device using any browser. They also support Virtual Reality (VR) display for an immersive experience. We have included many such models throughout this interview so the reader will have many opportunities to experience these models and those who are particularly curious may want to see how these models perform differently on their phones, tablets and computers.

The discussion above is focused on format, but not content. Animations can be 4D or spanning time, but that is not true of all animations. For example, an animation might involve rotating a static model, or moving a slice through it. Though we could consider the motion of the slice a time-based event, in our industry, if the model being sliced represents a static moment in time, we do not consider this a 4D animation. We also use frames to represent different subsetted regions of a model. These subsets can be by area, depth and/or range of values (e.g. concentration).

However, we do support working with true 4D data where we not only have information that was collected volumetric in 3D space, but also at many different times. Examples that I have personally worked on include:
• Seasonal variations in groundwater levels
• Contaminant concentration changes during multi-year remediation efforts
• Land subsidence resulting from oil pumping operations over decades
• California Condor flight paths, domains and interactions between individuals

Animation created by C Tech with data provided courtesy of San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research.
Earth Volumetric Studio was used to model the flight paths and probability density for the habitat of one California Condor being studied by the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research.

3DVW: Could you briefly explain how printed 3D models are created, what is involved in making them? What are the benefits of printed models?

CTECH: It is beyond the scope of this article to cover all types of 3D printing, but the technology that C Tech uses to print our full color models is still relatively unique in the 3D printing world. Most consumer 3D printers use a process where successive layers of material are deposited by melting plastic filament and additively depositing it with a nozzle. This technology is limited to printing one or two colors of plastic at a time and cannot print full color parts.

The only technology capable of printing our complex models in full color was originally invented by Z Corp. and was purchased by 3D Systems. The concept is very simple. They spread a thin layer of powder, and use ink-jet printer technology to print on the powder with colored inks that include a cyanoacrylate (super-glue) binder. Wherever the powder is printed, the part is made solid and elsewhere the powder later just falls away. After each layer is printed, another layer of powder is spread on top, and the printing continues until the part is completed. There are several different powders available, but for our rigid parts we use gypsum, the white material in drywall.

The unfortunate side of this story is cost. Full-color 3D printing is expensive. The machines are expensive and a 25 cm x 25 cm x 10 cm (10” x 10” x 4”) model takes many hours to print. The printing cost would also be a few thousand dollars. The consequence is that customers tend to shy away from 3D printing except for projects such as litigation support where making a big impact is worth the expense.

When your data is transformed into a volumetric 3D model, it is elevated to a higher level of authority. However, when a client can hold that 3D model in their hands, it becomes real.

We’re only aware of one other competing full color 3D printing technology (Mcor), but over the past 3.5 years, they have been unable to successfully print our parts. Their concept uses paper as the layers with ink-jet printing and glue as key elements similar to 3D Systems. However, because the layers are paper, they need to cut along the print boundaries of each layer with a micro-knife. We remain excited by their lower cost of consumables but fear that their paper and knife approach may be fundamentally limiting.

Fig. 13 - Full color 3D printed model with aerial photo CAD building contaminant plume and geologyFull color 3D printed model with aerial photo CAD building contaminant plume and geology

3DVW: C Tech Development Corporation has been doing 3D and visualization for quite a long time. What words of wisdom can you share with our readers that you have learned over time?

CTECH: We have many customers who delayed their entry into volumetric modeling for many reasons that range from “it costs too much” to “my customers don’t want it”. However, those same customers later share with us how 3D modeling has transformed their business. Once they embraced this technology, they realized that there was a lot of business they were losing because they were not perceived as qualified. However, in many fields, our customers have learned how to be more cost competitive using our tools to tackle the same projects and do a better job at a lower cost.


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Reed D. Copsey Sr. is President & Chief Executive Officer at C Tech Development Corporation. In 1989, Mr. Copsey formed C Tech Development Corporation, a research and development company, which has been focused on the development of C Tech’s Earth Science software, Earth Volumetric Studio, EnterVol, MVS and EVS-Pro. C Tech's software is recognized around the world for environmental, geology, geophysics, oceanic, archaeology and mining data analysis and visualization.  Mr. Copsey has been involved in three-dimensional data analysis and visualization since 1977 on projects that range from gold mines, superfund sites and earthquake generated subsidence to analytically guided explosives technology for countermine and anti-tank weapon systems. In 1995, C Tech was separated into two corporations C Tech Defense Corporation which pursued C Tech’s defense technology and C Tech Development Corporation which is exclusively involved in software development.  Mr. Copsey’s role as President and Chief Executive Officer for C Tech Development Corporation includes managing the corporation, guiding the architecture of C Tech’s software products and managing large consulting programs for clients all over the world.

For more information: C Tech Development Corporation